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COMPUTER – BASED TESTING

Prof. Gareth Bath © 2008 Tel Work: 012 529 8038; email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Cell Phone: 082 8022 526



Computer based testing is often called Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) but there are more possibilities to CBT than just that. Others call it the monkey-puzzle, but it only becomes that when designed by Great Apes. CBT can be made challenging and is a good method of assessment. It requires a lot of thought and analysis in its preparation, but it is a joy for the assessing team because marking is done flawlessly, instantly and automatically. Still better, the computer gives feedback on each question and enables the examiner to see its degree of difficulty, possible flaws in its wording, and points to where it can be improved. Apart from MCQs, there are Matching Item Questions, Area Specific Identifications, True/ False questions and other forms of CBT but these are not dealt with in this guide for setting questions, which is limited to the MCQ form.

Remember always that the purpose of the examination is not to trip up or catch out candidates, but rather to establish if they have the required minimum skills, knowledge and understanding expected of newly qualified graduate.  Specialised abilities are not expected and must be avoided in all questions. Try to set question based on real practice and frequently encountered or major problems that a graduate must be able to deal with.

All questions will be subjected to review and improvement, but veterinarians can help the SAVC by supplying a variety of proposals based on their own experiences and requirements.


MCQ SETTING

The MCQ consists of (1) a statement, question or problem. This is called the stem. Ideally it should be possible to give the answer, based only on the stem. (2) a series of possible answers called options from which the candidate selects one or more correct answers, depending on the marks allocated. The wrong answers are known as distractors. Most MCQs have only 1 correct answer and 4 distractors, to lower the risk of guessing or giving pure chance a high probability of affecting the outcome.

The Stem

This should consist of relatively short, single question, statement or problem. Information or options in the stem must not be repeated in the answer options. If the stem takes the form of a negative statement, question or problem this must be made very clear by using bold capital letters in words like NOT, EXCEPT, WORST.


The Options

There must be only one obviously correct answer, unless the marks and questions clearly state that more than one answer is required. The distractors must be clearly wrong but seem plausible to candidates with insufficient knowledge or understanding. Try to make the answers similar in the sense that one does not stand out as clearly different. This applies also to the length of the option used. Avoid using complex answers like (a), (b) and (c) ; (a) and (d); all the above; none of the above. For numerical answers give these options in ascending order.


Try to achieve the following:


•  The question or statement or problem must relate to important aspects and expectations in  knowledge or skills in the subject within veterinary science

•  The stem must be clearly worded

•   It must be unambiguous

•   It should be confined to one fact, idea or concept

•   The stem should contain most of the information and thus leave the option short and clear

•   Use direct questions or statements that lead to a definite answer

•   There must be only one option that is definitely correct or clearly the best answer (unless several marks are to be awarded)

•   Other options must all be definitely wrong

•    Nevertheless they should all be plausible alternatives for candidates with insufficient knowledge or abilities

•    Make the option as similar as possible to avoid inadvertently giving away the likeliest answer

•   Similarly make the option of equal length where possible

•   The options should link directly to the stem, ie form complete sentences when read together     


Try to avoid the following:


•  Vague wording, leading to uncertainty

•  Ambiguous wording, leading to misinterpretation

•  Multiple, long winded statements or questions with unnecessary information, leading to confusion.

•  Tricky questions based on strange or unique experience, or your own specialisation and expertise

•  Negative questions linked to some negative options. Double negatives are double trouble

•  Options that enable a crafty candidate to deduce the correct answer without knowing the facts

•  Complex, multiple options like (a), (b) and (e); (c) and (f); all of the above: for just 1 mark

•  Relative terms like usually, sometimes, maybe

•  True/False questions, as the candidate has 50% chance of guessing correctly

Please send feedback and comments to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. & This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

IMPORTANT NOTICE:

 

To ensure that your facility complies with the minimum standards for facilities it is recommended that you conduct a self-evaluation of your clinical facility prior to completion of the application form to register your facility with Council.

Click here to download application form.

To enable you to do a self evaluation it is recommended that you complete the evaluation form for facilities.

Kindly refer to the rules relating to minimum standards for facilities when you do the self-evaluation.

 

 

 

In the event that your facility does not comply with the rules relating to the minimum standards for facilities you are required to apply for exemption from compliance with the rules in terms of Rule 40 of the rules for veterinarians.

The application for registration of your facility should be accompanied by an application for exemption from the rules that your facility does not comply with together with input obtained from private practitioners in your area indicating whether or not they support your application for exemption.

 

The following criteria are used when applications for exemption are considered :

  • A clear need for the veterinary service and the community that the applicant intends to serve must be shown;
  • Input from other private practitioners servicing the area must be obtained and considered;
  • Exemption will be limited to a period of time, alternatively to areas where no other veterinary services exist until such time that another practitioner delivers veterinary services in the that area;
  • The welfare of the patient and the quality of veterinary services should not be compromised; and
  • Exemptions will be limited to equipment /structural requirements that cannot be complied with.

 Application for Accreditation: Sterilisation Campaigns and /or Community Engagement

E-mail your application to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

REGULATIONS
VETERINARIANS

Requirements for registration as veterinarian: Veterinary Degree
19A. Requirements for registration
(1) Any applicant that applies for registration as a veterinarian shall -
(a) submit a certificate of competence in mathematics and physical science issued for school leaving purposes by a competent secondary level schooling authority of South Africa; or
(b) submit a certificate of equivalent status as approved by the Veterinary Council.
(2) The veterinary degree referred to in regulation 19 which entitles a candidate to register as a veterinarian shall -
(a) comprise of the completion of at least five academic years of study as a registered veterinary student; and
(b) be constituted of the subject courses specified in Table 6.
(3) A student shall spend a minimum period of six weeks under the supervision of a registered veterinarian at an institution or veterinary practice.
(4) Upon completion of a veterinary degree a registered veterinary student may, if the examining authority is satisfied that the provisions of the Act and these regulations have been successfully complied with, be registered as a veterinarian in terms of the Act.
19B. Curriculum requirements
(1) The curriculum of any university that offers a course of study for qualification as a veterinarian in terms of regulation 19 shall comprise of the subject courses specified in Table 6.
(2) Allocation, grouping and nomenclature of subjects or parts thereof shall be determined by the university: Provided that correlation of subject matter shall be done throughout the curriculum and that training is given in each field.
19C. Examinations
(1) The examinations for the degree shall include examination in all the subject courses specified in Table 6.
(2) Examiners shall take into account the documented records of work done by a candidate in a subject during the course of a year.
(3) At least two examiners, one of whom was not involved in the teaching of the subject to the candidate, shall participate in the evaluation of each subject.
(4) A candidate shall pass an examination in a subject if at least 50 percent, or the equivalent of 50 percent in the marking system employed by a university, of the maximum marks obtainable in the examination for that subject is obtained.
TABLE 6


Subject course

Minimum academic year

Contents and instructions

Chemistry*

½

Organic chemistry

Physics*

½

Subject shall be presented in a manner which is applicable to the animal or human body.

Biology*
or
Zoology and Botany*

1
½ each

 

Anatomy:**
1. Macroscopic Anatomy

 

2. Microscopic Anatomy (histology)

3. Developmental Anatomy (embryology)

 

1

 

½

½

 

Functional morphology of domesticated animals, including birds, the dissection of carcass material and demonstrations on living animals.

Study of the microscopic structure of tissues and organs and the identification thereof.

Embryonic development and related matters including genetic and developmental aberrations.

Physiology**

Physiological chemistry, physiology of animals and birds with the emphasis on understanding of body functions.

Pharmacology**

1

Use of medicines and related substances used in veterinary practice and the acts that govern the use thereof.

Para-clinical group:
1. Animal science group of subjects

 

 

 

 

 

2. Pathology group of subjects

 

 

 

 

 

Clinical group:

1. Medicine

2. Theriogenology

3. Surgery and anaesthesiology

 

4. Radiology

 

5. Livestock and poultry health

6. General clinical practice

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

(a) Theoretical and practical instructions in -
(i) genetics, breed characteristics, breeding, production systems, products, economics and production, breeding for disease resistance and related matters;
(ii) housing, management, care, handling and behaviour of animals; and
(iii) optimal nutriment and fee-ding of animals with emphasis on nutritional imbalances, deficiencies and the feeding of sick animals.
(b) Practically orientated know-ledge of veld and pastures, the management and utilisation thereof in the maintenance and promotion of animal health and production with the emphasis on environmental conservation.
(a) Macroscopic anatomical pathology including post-mortem examinations with emphasis on diagnosis and the general pathological principles of microscopic anatomical pathology.
(b) Infectious and contagious diseases including microbiology, immunology and diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi and other pathogenic organisms.
(c) Veterinary public health and food hygiene.
(d) Veterinary helminthology and entomology.
(e) Clinical pathology.
(f) Veterinary toxicology:
(i) identification of toxic plants, organic and inorganic compounds and the diagnosis, treatment and control of toxicosis in animals;
(ii) basic and applied epidemiology;
(iii) statutory obligations of veterinarians; and
(iv) the role of management in disease occurrence and disease control.
(g) With theoretical and practical instruction in the epidemiology and pathology group of subjects, special attention shall be given to the correlation of subject matter, the application of subject matter in preventive and promotive veterinary medicine and the relevance of subject matter to clinical practice under different husbandry conditions.

 

The principles and practise.
The principles and practise.
The principles and practise with the emphasis on those procedures more commonly encountered in general practise.
The principles and practise.
Integrated instruction in and experience of general clinical practice.
Training in the clinical subjects shall -
(a) emphasise on experimental study of inpatients and outpatients;
(b) include participation in herd health programmes;
(c) take place -
(i) in an animal hospital attached to the university for this purpose;
(ii) in outlying hospitals and clinics in rural and urban communities; and
(iii) on farms
(d) include training on curative, promotive, preventive and ethical aspects of veterinary practice; and
(e) during internship, give equal exposure to training in the regulatory fields of veterinary public health, animal disease control and state veterinary administration.

* Subject shall include basic principles required in the study of other subjects in the curriculum and practical instruction therein.
** Subject shall be taught with emphasis on clinical teaching and interrelation of structure and function.

 

Qualifications for registration as a veterinarian
[REG.19]

Degree,  diploma or certificate University or other educational institution
1 2
BVSc.
B.V.M.Ch.
University of Pretoria
Medical University of Southern Africa

 

 

 

SOUTH AFRICAN VETERINARY COUNCIL

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION AS A VETERINARY SPECIALIST WITH THE SOUTH AFRICAN VETERINARY COUNCIL (SAVC)

1. A prescribed academic qualification and registration as a veterinarian with the SAVC.

or

2. Successful completion of the Council-approved specialist registration examination and registration as a veterinarian with the SAVC.

or

3. A foreign qualification recognised for registration as a specialist in the country of origin, peer evaluation by a panel of registered specialists appointed by the SAVC and registration as a veterinarian with the SAVC.

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR TRAINING AS A VETERINARY SPECIALIST IN SOUTH AFRICA FOR REGISTRATION WITH THE SOUTH AFRICAN VETERINARY COUNCIL

  1. Time interval between completion of the undergraduate veterinary qualification and commencement of specialist training. A veterinarian wanting to enter specialist training for registration with the South African Veterinary Council shall have completed a minimum period of 1 (one) year in a rotating clinical internship1 or other suitable work environment (general practice, industry, consultancy, academic/research institution, etc) after completion of an undergraduate veterinary qualification prior to commencement of a residency.
  2. Minimum exposure to speciality during training as a veterinary specialist. A veterinarian in the process of completing specialist training shall be known as a resident2 and shall work for at least 3 (three) consecutive years full time in the speciality area with a minimum of 90 (ninety) weeks over 3 (three) years of supervised training under an approved resident supervisor.
  3. Residentsupervisor. The supervisor of the resident shall be a specialist in the relevant discipline, actively involved in the speciality and registered with the South African Veterinary Council as a specialist in the discipline or shall at least hold an equivalent qualification which will allow registration as a specialist in the discipline in the country of origin and be appropriately accredited/authorised by the SAVC.
    The resident supervisor shall not supervise the clinical training of more than 3 (three) residents at the same time. The resident supervisor shall be responsible for the resident’s - training programme,
    - clinical/experiential supervision and instruction, and
    - research project (a separate research supervisor may be appointed in liaison with the resident supervisor to guide the trainee in the research project as required),
    as well as for the coordination of assessment. The resident supervisor will also be required to confirm the correctness of the resident’s activity/procedure record and case logbook every 6 (six) months and to prepare a final written report on the training programme of all residents supervised by him/her for monitoring purposes as required.
  4. Training centres. Experiential training shall be conducted in the academic hospital or appropriate academic department of a recognised Faculty of Veterinary Science or other approved registered facility or suitable institution or laboratory, according to the requirements of the specific speciality. These venues must have adequate facilities, workload, access to other specialities, library and reference tools (internet), and at least one full-time employed or contractually employed specialist in the speciality pursued by the resident. This specialist has to be registered with the South African Veterinary Council or hold an equivalent qualification which will allow registration as a specialist in the discipline in the country of origin and be appropriately accredited/authorised by the SAVC and be approved as resident supervisor.
  5. Scholarship. The resident shall:
    - comply with all academic requirements (including a dissertation or other scholarly product(s)) as per the minimum requirements of the relevant speciality as approved by the SAVC,
    - the dissertation and all other requirements should be finalised before the final examination,
    - maintain an activity/procedure record and case logbook3 in compliance with the minimum requirements of the relevant speciality as approved by the SAVC,
    - comply with all experiential requirements of the relevant speciality as approved by the SAVC,
    - prepare at least 2 (two) case reports3, preferably in a publishable format,
    - provide proof of contribution to the furtherance of the speciality in the form of at least one full research article as senior author in an ISI-recognised journal, and
    - provide proof of involvement in the provision of continuing professional development.
  6. Assessment. Assessment in the speciality shall be based on:
    - a written examination(s) of at least 3 (three) hour’s duration,
    - an oral examination of at least 2 (two) hour’s duration,
    - a clinical/practical examination if required by the specific speciality as approved by the SAVC, and
    - a dissertation or other scholarly product(s) as required by the relevant speciality and approved by the SAVC. The dissertation and all other requirements should be finalised before the final examination. A candidate may sit the specialist examination twice with a minimum interval of one year and a maximum interval of two years.
    External examiners shall be recognised specialists actively involved in the relevant or associated speciality registered with the South African Veterinary Council as a specialist in the discipline or shall at least hold an equivalent qualification which will allow registration as a specialist in the discipline in the country of origin and be appropriately accredited/authorised by the SAVC. External examiners shall have access to all components of the final assessment as well as the activity/procedure record and case logbook* of the resident and report of the resident supervisor.
  7. Duration. The total duration of training shall not exceed a period of 6 years during which all aspects of training and assessment have to be completed. Extension of time may be granted under exceptional circumstances as provided for by the relevant speciality and approved by the SAVC.
    1 Intern: a veterinary graduate enrolled in an internship
    Internship: a structured training programme under supervision of a suitably qualified veterinarian in an academic veterinary hospital or other approved facility aimed at developing practical/clinical skills and expertise in preparation of a residency and confirmed by a certificate of attendance
    2 Resident: a veterinary graduate enrolled in a residency
    Residency: a formal training programme under supervision of a registered specialist in an academic veterinary hospital or other approved facility which will lead to specialist status through an acceptable qualification or approved examination
    3 Case logbook and case reports include clinical as well as other non-clinical activities as provided for by the relevant specialty as approved by the SAVC.


QUALIFICATIONS AND SPECIALITIES FOR REGISTRATION AS A VETERINARY SPECIALIST


Degree, diploma or certificate

University

Speciality

Designations reserved

1

2

3

4

M.Med.Vet (Chir) Small Animals

Medunsa

Surgery: Small Animals

Veterinary Specialist Surgeon: Small Animals

M.Med.Vet (Chir) Small Animals

Pretoria

Specialist Surgery: Small Animals

Veterinary Specialist Surgeon: Small Animals

M.Med.Vet (Chir) (EQ)

Pretoria

Surgery: Horses

Veterinary Surgeon: Horses

M.Med.Vet (Rad)

Pretoria

Radiology

Veterinary Radiologist

M.Med.Vet (Anaesthesiology)

Medunsa

Anaesthesiology

Veterinary Anaesthesiologist

M.Med.Vet (Anaesth)

Pretoria

Anaesthesiology

Veterinary Anaesthesiologist

M.Med.Vet (Veterinary Public Health)

Medunsa

Veterinary Public Health

Veterinary Public Health Specialist

M.Med.Vet (Hyg)

Pretoria

Veterinary Public Health

Veterinary Public Health Specialist

M.Med.Vet (Medicine ) Small Stock

Medunsa

Medicine: Small Stock

Veterinary Specialist Physician: Small Stock

M.Med.Vet (Medicine) Small Animals

Medunsa

Medicine: Small Animals

Veterinary Specialist Physician: Small Animals

M.Med.Vet Bovids

Medunsa

Medicine: Bovids

Veterinary Specialist Physician: Bovids

M.Med.Vet (Med)

Pretoria

Medicine: Small Animals

Veterinary Specialist Physician: Small Animals

M.Med.Vet (Med)

Pretoria

Medicine: Bovids

Veterinary Specialist Physician: Bovids

M.Med.Vet (Med)

Pretoria

Medicine: Horses

Veterinary Specialist Physician: Horses

M.Med.Vet (Theriogenology) Small Stock

Medunsa

Genesiology: Small Stock

Veterinary Genesiologist: Small Stock

M.Med.Vet (Theriogenology) Small Animals

Medunsa

Genesiology: Small Animals

Veterinary Genesiologist: Small Animals

M.Med.Vet (Theriogenology) Bovids

Medunsa

Genesiology: Bovids

Veterinary Genesiologist: Bovids

M.Med.Vet (Theriogenology) Horses

Medunsa

Genesiology: Horses

Veterinary Genesiologist: Horses

M.Med.Vet (Gyn)

Pretoria

Genesiology: General

Veterinary Genesiologist: General

M.Med.Vet (Pathology)

Medunsa

Anatomical Pathology

Veterinary Pathologist: Anatomy

M.Med.Vet (Nutritional Pathology)

Medunsa

Nutritional diseases

Veterinary Pathologist: Nutritional Diseases

M.Med.Vet Microbiology

Medunsa

Microbiology

Veterinary Pathologist: Microbiology

M.Med.Vet (Path)

Pretoria

Anatomical Pathology

Veterinary Pathologist: Anatomy

M.Med.Vet (Clin. Lab. Diag.)

Pretoria

Clinical Pathology

Veterinary Pathologist: Clinical Pathology

M.Med.Vet (Parasit)

Pretoria

Parasitology

Veterinary Pathologist: Parasitology

M.Med.Vet (Micro)

Pretoria

Microbiology

Veterinary Pathologist: Microbiology

M.Med.Vet (Prac.) Pigs

Medunsa

Specialist Practitioner: Pigs

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Pigs

M.Med.Vet Small Animals

Pretoria

Specialist Practitioner: Small Animal

Veterinary Specialist: Small Animal

M.Med.Vet (Vet. Eth)

Pretoria

Veterinary Ethology

Veterinary Specialist: Ethologist

M.Med.Vet (Aves)

Pretoria

Specialist Practitioner: Poultry

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Poultry

M.Med.Vet (Laboratory Animal Medicine)

Medunsa

Specialist Practitioner: Laboratory Animals

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Laboratory Animals

M.Med.Vet (Prac) Small Stock

Medunsa

Specialist Practitioner: Small Stock

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Small Stock

M.Med.Vet (Prac) Bovids

Medunsa

Specialist Practitioner: Bovids

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Bovids

M.Med.Vet (Suill.)

Pretoria

Specialist Practitioner: Pigs

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Pigs

M.Med.Vet (Altil.)

Pretoria

Specialist Practitioner: Poultry

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Poultry

M.Med.Vet (LAS)

Pretoria

Specialist Practitioner: Laboratory Animals

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Laboratory Animals

M.Med.Vet (Fer.)

Pretoria

Specialist Practitioner: Game

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Game

M.Med.Vet (Capr.Ov.)

Pretoria

Specialist Practitioner: Small Stock

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Small Stock

M.Med.Vet (Bov.)

Pretoria

Specialist Practitioner: Bovids

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Bovids

M.Med.Vet (Ophth.)

Pretoria

Specialist Practitioner: Ophthalmology

Veterinary Specialist Practitioner: Ophthalmology

M.Med.Vet (Tox)

Pretoria

Veterinary Specialist Toxicology

Veterinary Specialist Toxicologist

M.Med.Vet (Pharm)

Pretoria

Veterinary Specialist Pharmacology

Veterinary Specialist Pharmacologist

M.Med.Vet (DiagIm)

Pretoria

Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging

Veterinary Specialist Radiologist

SOUTH AFRICAN VETERINARY COUNCIL
VETERINARY SPECIALISTS
Currently (Jan 2008) 120 veterinary specialists are registered with Council. Specialists register automatically with the SAVC if they are the holders of prescribed post graduate degrees.
Council will assess a post graduate qualification for registration as a veterinary specialist on application if the applicant is not the holder of a prescribed post graduate qualification. Application for assessment of post graduate qualification not prescribed in terms of the Act.
Assessment guide for peer evaluations of specialist qualifications not prescribed.

 

SAVC Login

Links to African Council websites

Veterinary Statutory Bodies in Africa
http://www.rr-africa.oie.int/en/RC/en_vsbs.html

Veterinary Council of Namibia
http://www.van.org.na/section.php?secid=10

Veterinary Council of Zimbabwe (department of livestock and veterinary services)
http://www.dlvs.gov.zw/

Kenya Veterinary Board
http://kenyavetboard.org/

Veterinary Council of Tanzania
http://www.mifugouvuvi.go.tz/vertinary-council-of-tanzania/

Botswana Veterinary Association
http://www.bva.org.bw/bva_content.php?id=2

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